Part One: Intro to Orgo

  1. What is Orgo?
    1. Organic chemistry, also known as "Orgo or O-Chem" is the study of molecular structure and reactions pertaining to living matter. It is commonly referred to as the study of compounds that contain carbon.
    2. Why spend an entire year learning about carbon?!?
      1. Carbon containing compounds are the gateway to life. By studying organic chemistry one can have an appreciation for living organisms and the basis for life. One can also gain an understanding for organic chemistry contributions to health, medicine, pharmacology and industry.
  2. Carbon
    1. Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon. So let's review carbon.
    2. Atomic number = 6
    3. Electron configuration = 1s22s22p2
    4. Valence Electrons
      1. Definition: The electrons found in the outermost shell in the atom.
        1. They are the electrons that can participate in bonding.
        2. Note: Lone pair electrons are a subset of the valence electrons that do not participate in bonding.
      2. 1s22s22p2
        1. The electrons in the second shell (2s22p2) represent carbon's valence electrons
        2. 2 +2 =4
          So carbon has four valence electrons
      3. In order to complete its octet it needs to share four more electrons
    5. Octet Rule
      1. Definition: the sum of all bonding electrons and non-bonding electrons on a given atom in the 2nd row of the periodic table will never be greater than 8
      2. Exceptions to the Octet Rule:
        1. Hydrogen and Lithium = 1 Valence Electron
        2. Beryllium = 2 Valence Electrons
        3. Elements in period 3 can occupy more than 8 valance electrons (e.g. Phosphorus and Sulfur)
    6. So if carbon has four electrons it may accommodate four more electrons
      1. How can it do so? It may gain two more bonds.
        1. One bond = 2 electrons
        2. Carbon "takes on" one of those electrons from a given bond towards its octet